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Seslavin distinguished themselves in the battles near Dorogobuzh, Krapivna, Borisov.

Seslavin distinguished themselves in the battles near Dorogobuzh, Krapivna, Borisov.

Seeking to populate and strengthen the liberated area, the government in 1775 settled the Cossacks of the Newly Recruited Regiment and the Arnauts in the Kherson (Nikolaev) province in the interfluve of the Ingula, Yelanets, and Mertvovod rivers. The settlers were allocated 109,407 dec. land for farming, viticulture, horticulture and livestock. In the same year, the Cossacks and Arnauts settled in the settlements of Sokoly (since 1789 – Voznesensk), which housed the Military Board, Rakovytsia, Novohryhoriivske, Arnautivka (now Doroshivka), Mykhailivka, Troitske, Fedorivske (now Nova Odesa) 1803 – Belousivka, now Trykati), Kasperivka, Novopetrovske, Sebino, Guryevo, Konstantinove, Balovneve, Matviyivka (now villages in the Voznesensky and Novoodesky districts of the Nikolaev area).

On February 12, 1785, due to the aggravation of Russian-Turkish relations, the 1500th Cossack Regiment was formed from the former Cossacks of the Newly Recruited Regiment and Arnauts by order of Catherine II. Somewhat later, on June 6, 1786, it was divided into the 1st and 2nd Bug Cossack regiments. Lieutenant Colonel I. Kasperov was appointed commander of the 1st, and Major P. Skarzhynsky was appointed commander of the 2nd. The regiments occupied the border line along the Bug from Mertvovod to Ingul. On the eve of the new Russo-Turkish war, the government took a number of measures to increase military contingents in the south. In 1787, the Bug Cossack regiments were annexed to the newly formed Ekaterinoslav Cossack Army.

The Bug regiments retained their military independence (their headquarters were in Novopetrovsk). At the same time, 3,179 Ukrainian peasants from the Krasnosilsky estates of Yelisavetgrad district (now Kirovohrad region), bought by GO Potemkin from various landowners to increase the number of troops, were included in the Bug Cossacks. The tsarist administration chose Krasnosillya as a new place for the Cossacks to settle, where they began to be relocated in the autumn of 1787, despite resistance. The arbitrariness of the tsars, government officials, and the enormous material damage suffered by the Buz Cossacks as a result of this resettlement caused mass unrest among them, which resulted in the flight of troops from the Dniester border. Faced with strong opposition from the Cossacks, the government administration was forced to overturn its decision and allow the Cossacks to return to the Bug settlements.

After returning to the Bug for more effective leadership, the two Bug Cossack regiments were united into one under the command of Colonel PM Skarzhinsky, and in the fall of 1789, Lieutenant Colonel VP Orlov. During the war, the regiment was divided into hundreds, including a centurion, a lieutenant and 120 Cossacks. According to the staffing schedule, the regiment consisted of 1,500 Cossacks. During the war, the Buz Cossacks took part in the siege and assault on Ochakov, Kinburn, Ackerman, and Julia, together with units of Colonel Isayev’s Don Army and Ataman 3’s Chernomorets. The Chepigi fought near Bender, and distinguished themselves in the assault on the Khadzhibey and Izmail fortresses.

After the war, the Bug Regiment was stationed in Moldavia on the river Seret, and in September 1792 was transferred to Poland. At that time the regiment numbered 1,534 Cossacks, 1,275 were in the ranks. From 1793, the Bug Regiment occupied the border line along the Dniester and the Black Sea coast from Yahorlyk to Ochakov. In June 1796, due to the liquidation of the Ekaterinoslav Cossack army, the Buz Cossacks were subordinated to the Black Sea Admiralty Board, and in 1797 they were disbanded by order of Paul I. The Cossacks, despite their protests, were transformed into state peasants with the subsequent transfer to the jurisdiction of the local zemstvo administration. It should be noted that the two hundred who guarded the border on the Dniester were disbanded only in 1800.

At the beginning of the XIX century. due to the new complication of Russian-Turkish relations, the tsarist government pays great attention to strengthening the southern borders. In particular, it was decided to recruit former Buzh Cossacks for military service. These measures of the government coincided with the demands of the Cossacks themselves to restore the army. This is what the delegation of Cossack officers, sent in 1801 to St. Petersburg, defended. At the time of the restoration of the army, the Buz Cossacks inhabited 27 villages and hamlets, which had 2,322 yards with a population of over 12,000 people. (In addition to the above – Krasnosillya, Mykhailivka-2, Hryhorievka, Kucherovi Bayraki, Lagerya, Vodyana, Ukhivka, Ruda, Gutnytska, Lozovatka, Serdeshna, Perina). The largest in number were Krasnosillya – 1.293 people, Mykhailivka – 2.304, Gutnytska – 541, Sokoly – 517.

The Bug Cossack army was multinational in composition. The vast majority are Ukrainians, who determined the national appearance, traditions and way of life. The army also included Russians, Moldovans, Bulgarians, Montenegrins, Serbs and even Gypsies. By a decree of May 8, 1803, the Bug army was restored on the basis of https://123helpme.me/write-my-lab-report/ the Don Cossack army, ie on its own. The army included all the villages of Buzka and Krasnosilsk with the administrative center in Voznesensk. In addition, it was joined by two Bulgarian settlements, Shcherbani (now Voznesensky district) and Dymovske (village of Dimino, Novoodesky district), where there were 600 people.

Administratively and militarily, the army repeated the structure of the Don and Black Sea troops, a slight difference was due to the smaller scale and privileges of the Buz. For internal civil and economic management, the Military Chancellery was introduced under the chairmanship of the commanding ataman. The office consisted of two essential persons (members) from the staff officers, two assessors, a prosecutor and a secretary. Subsequently, the staff of the office increased due to: a doctor, a doctor’s apprentice, a police chief, a zemstvo commissioner, an assistant police chief and a zemstvo commissioner, a treasurer. The settlements of the army were divided into three districts: two Buzka and one Krasnosilsky.

The districts were headed by district chiefs from the elders. On the military unit, the army was subject to the military governor, on the civilian – the civilian provincial government. There were elected atamans in the villages. The army was to field three five-hundredth regiments (later the number of regiments changed. See BV’s doc. Group). The service life was not determined. The form of the Bug Cossacks was dark blue jackets with white straps and belts; dark blue trousers with a white ribbon; gray drawers. Smushki hats with a black brim, white top with embroideries (laces) and white sultans. Chepraki on saddles of red cloth with a white covering. The armament consisted of pistols, carbines, sabers and a pickaxe.

With the restoration of the army, the Buz Cossacks served in the border service on the Dniester, and with the beginning of the Russo-Turkish war of 1806-1812 as part of three regiments took part in the siege of Ishmael, in hostilities in Bessarabia , Moldavia and Wallachia. The Cossacks were especially noted in the fight against the plague in Odessa in 1812. During the Napoleonic invasion, detachments of Buz Cossacks, who voluntarily joined the active army, showed examples of devotion and courage. The famous hero of the Patriotic War of 1812 D. Davydov specially noted the heroism and courage of the Bug Cossacks. The 1st Bug Regiment also operated successfully in foreign campaigns, especially in France under Craon, Laon, and Arsis; participated in the capture of Paris. For this, on January 14, 1816, he was awarded the highest award for cavalry units St. George’s standard (flag) "For Courage".

The 2nd and 3rd Bug regiments fought with the French army on the Dnieper, as part of the partisan detachments of O. Figner and O. Seslavin they distinguished themselves in the battles near Dorohobuzh, Krapivna, and Borisov. The 2nd Regiment ended its campaign in Vilno.

After the end of hostilities, the Cossacks continued their border service. The economy of the newly recruited Cossacks and Arnauts was initially formed under the influence of national characteristics, traditional production skills and needs. Thus, in the settlements of the Newly-recruited regiment, agriculture typical of Ukraine with a plow and oxen prevailed, in the Arnaut part the leading place was occupied by gardening, horticulture and viticulture. However, over time, as economic ties grew, the way of life and way of life of the newly recruited Cossacks and Arnauts converged, the economic activity of the Bug Cossacks became more diverse and productive.

The basis of economic life was agriculture and livestock. Agriculture was dominated by crops of wheat-arnautka, rye, millet, oats; in cattle breeding – breeding of cattle, horses, sheep. It was the Bug Cossacks who spread the well-known breed of Ukrainian (Cherkasy) cattle in this area. The Cossacks were also engaged in fishing, handicrafts, trade. The development of the desert lands of Pobuzhye took place in difficult conditions, with great difficulty, extremely slowly. Natural disasters, insufficient number of tools and working cattle, along with the constant military danger at the border had a severe impact on the economic life and life of the settlers. Some of them, especially from the Arnauts, could not withstand the difficult conditions and returned abroad.

The creation of the Bug Cossack army caused a great attraction of runaway peasants, former Zaporozhian Cossacks, all those who tried to get rid of the yoke of serfdom. However, admission to the Bug Cossacks was very limited. It was strictly forbidden to enroll peasants in it. Only persons of foreign origin were allowed to join the army. Therefore, a large part of the runaway peasants, who fell into the territory of the army, were forced to hire officers and wealthy Cossacks, whose farms needed labor.

The rest of the fugitives abroad went and returned to the army under the guise of strangers. The reception of such persons was especially facilitated during hostilities, as the command, interested in increasing the number of Cossacks, looked through their fingers at their social background. Among them were the Transdanubian Cossacks. Thus, in October 1807, the Bug Military Chancellery reported that 20 Cossacks and three women from across the Danube were enlisted in the army, specifying that they were from the Ust-Danube Army. Along with the presence on the territory of the army of a significant mass of incoming gray, the rapid process of property and social stratification took place directly and among the Cossacks themselves. This was largely due to the land policy of the tsarist government.

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